Integrated Machine Learning and Mathematical Optimization

For the past several years, ML has exploded in popularity, while the excitement for MO has mostly plateaued. Why this has occurred is very much up for debate. One might surmise that ML is simply a better tool than MO, and therefore it replaced it in terms of popularity. This, however, is wrong-headed. ML and MO are typically used to solve very different problems. One might also think that problems MO has historically solved no longer exist.